Selected list of Illustrators (English editions)

Carroll L (1866a) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Sir John Tenniel. London: Macmillan and Co.

(Carroll L) (1866b) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Sir John Tenniel. New York: D Appleton and Company.

(Carroll L) (1886) Alice’s Adventures Under Ground, being a facsimile of the original ms. book afterwards developed into “Alice’s adventures in Wonderland,”. London; New York: Macmillan and Co.

(Carroll L) (1893) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Sir John Tenniel. New ed. New York: Macmillan.

(Carroll L) (1901) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Peter Newell. New York; London: Harper & Bros.

(Carroll L) (1907a) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Millicent Sowerby. London: Chatto and Windus.

(Carroll L) (1907b) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by W.H. Walker. London; New York: J. Lane.

(Carroll L) (1908) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by John R. Neill. Children’s Red Books 10. Chicago: Reilly and Britton Co.

(Carroll L) (1909) Through the Looking-Glass: and What Alice Found There. Illustrated by Bessie Pease Gutmann. New York: Dodge Pub. Co.

(Carroll L) (1910) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Mabel Lucie Attwell. London; New York: R. Tuck & Sons.

(Carroll L) (1913) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Frontispiece by Maria Louise Kirk. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.

(Carroll L) (1914) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by A. E. Jackson. New York: George H. Doran Co.

(Carroll L) (1916) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Margaret Tarrant. London: Ward Lock.

(Carroll L) (1919a) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by George Soper. New York: Baker & Taylor.

(Carroll L) (1919b) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Gwynedd M. Hudson. [England]; Nottingham: Boots the Chemist; Published by Hodder and Stoughton for Boots Pure Drug Co.

(Carroll L) (1921) Alice in Wonderland in Gregg Shorthand. New York : Gregg Pub. Co.

(Carroll L) (1926) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Ada Bowley. Newberry Classics. Philadelphia: David McKay Co.

(Carroll L) (1929) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland. Illustrated by Willy Pogany. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co.

(Carroll L) (1930) Alice in Wonderland. Illustrated by Marie Laurencin. Paris: Black Sun Press.

(Carroll L) (1932a) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderlandand Through the Looking-Glass. Illustrated by Milo Winter. G. Edward Cassady Collection. Edition of 1932. Windermere Series. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co.

(Carroll L) (1932b) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland. Illustrated by John Tenniel engraved on wood by Bruno Rollitz. New York: Limited Editions Club.

(Carroll L) (1945a) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland.  Illustrated in colour by A. Rado. London: W.H. Cornelius.

(Carroll L) (1945b) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland: From the Story. Illustrated by Helen Jacobs. London: Martins Press.

(Carroll L) (1946. Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland. John Tenniel illustrations colored by Fritz Kredel. Special ed. Random House: New York.

(Carroll L) (1949) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Illustrations by Leonard Weisgard. Harper: New York.

(Carroll L) (1966) Alice in Wonderland. Illustrated by Sergio Leone. Golden Pleasure Books: London.

(Carroll L) (1967) Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland. Illustrated by Ralph Steadman. Dobson: London.

(Carroll L) (1968a) Alice in Wonderland. Illustrated by Janet and Anne Grahame Johnstone. World Distributors: Manchester.

(Carroll L) (1968b) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There. Illustrated by Peter Newell. C.E. Tuttle Co: Rutland VT.

(Carroll L) (1969) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Salvador Dali. Maecenas Press: New York.

(Carroll L) (1982) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. Illustrated by Barry Moser. Ed. Selwyn Goodacre. University of California Press: Berkeley.

(Carroll L) (1985) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland. Illustrated by Alice B. Woodward and Sue Shields. Bell & Hyman: London.

(Carroll L) (1998) Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland. Photographs by Abelardo Morell. Dutton: New York.

Dalby, R (1991) The Golden Age Of Children’s Book Illustrations. M. O’Mara Books: London.

Donovan, M, Geis D, Luykx D and Walt Disney Productions (1978) Walt Disney’s Treasury Of Children’s Classics. Henry N. Abrams  Inc. Publishers: New York.

Grosmont, Henry of, 1st Duke of Lancaster (1354) Livre de Seyntz Medicines; (“the treacle is made of poison so that it can destroy other poisons”).

Gardner M (1960) The Annotated Alice: Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. C. N. Potter: New York.

Menges JA, Burstein M (eds) (2012) Alice Illustrated: 110 Images from the Classic Tales of Lewis Carroll. Dover Publications: Mineola.

Ovenden G (ed) (1979) The Illustrators of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Rev. ed. Academy Editions: London; St. Martin’s Press: New York.

Roberts J (1992) The Alice in Wonderland Picture Book. Hodder & Stoughton: New York.


General Bibliography

Attwell ML (Illustrator) (1910) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland. Raphael Tuck and Sons, Ltd: London.

Bailey K (2005) “Eleanor of Aquitaine.” British Heritage 26.2: 28-34.

Begins: “Endowed with intelligence, creative energy and a remarkably long life, Eleanor of Aquitaine played a major role in the 12th century, an impressive achievement given that medieval women were considered nothing more than chattel.” Examines the tension between her political involvements and cultural pursuits; a balanced perspective is taken here.

Bingham J (2009) The Cotswolds: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press: New York.

Section on Woodstock Palace: Kings and Queens in the Forest, pp63—66. Talks about authors attracted to the stories about Woodstock and Royalty and how Rosamund’s story was told by artists, novelists and poets and how the Pre-Raphaelites emphasized the fairy tale aspect of it. (Carroll had lots of poetry, literature, fairy tales, etc. in his library).

Edens C (1989) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, The Ultimate Illustrated Edition. Compiled & arranged by C Edens. Bantam Books:  New York.

Chastleton’s croquet lawns: “In the 1850s the house was inherited by Walter Jones Whitmore, an eccentric young bachelor who devoted his time to inventing gadgets and playing croquet. At that time croquet had only just arrived from Ireland and had been taken up by a small band of enthusiasts, including the Rev. Dodgson (otherwise known as Lewis Carroll)” p. 203.

Blunt W (1976). The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century. Tryon Gallery:  London: Hamilton .

On p. 16: “Malmesbury tells us that Henry I had at Woodstock lions, leopards, etc.”

Bradley E (‘Cuthbert Bede’) (1853) The Adventures of Verdant Green. Blackwood: London.

A novel of the life of an Oxford undergraduate resembling Lewis Carroll at the time, describing the floods of the river Isis that are likely to have inspired the scenes of flooding of the sheep’s sweet shop in Alice Through the Looking Glass. “. . . the Isis was amplified to the width of Christ Church meadows.”

Brantôme, Abbé Pierre de Bourdeille de (~1600) Vie des hommes illustres et grands capitaines français.

Brewer EC (1889) The Reader’s Handbook of Allusions, References, Plots and Stories: with Two Appendices. J. B. Lippincott Company: Philadelphia.

p. 844: Rosamund (The Fair), Jane Clifford, daughter of Walter, Lord Clifford. The lady was loved not widley but too well by Henry II, who kept her for concealment in a labyrinth at Woodstock. . . . Dryden says her name was Jane:

Jane Clifford was her name, as books aver:
“Fair Rosamund” was but her nom de guerre.

Bunyan J (1998) The Pilgrim’s Progress in Modern English. Hazelbaker LE (ed). Bridge-Logos Publishers: North Brunswick NJ.

Capellanus A (~1186—1190/1990) The Art of Courtly Love. Columbia University Press: New York.

In The Art of Courtly Love, Andreas Capellanus (Andrew the chaplain) refers to the court of Poitiers. He claimed that several women, including Eleanor and her daughter Marie de Champagne, would sit and listen to the quarrels of lovers and act as a jury to the questions of the court that revolved around acts of romantic love. He records some twenty-one cases, the most famous of them being a problem designated to the woman about whether or not true love can exist in marriage. According to Capellanus, the women decided that it was not at all likely.

Some scholars dispute this (e.g. Weir). They note that the only evidence the courts of love took place is in Andreas Capellanus’s book. They also conclude that it unlikely that this influential court ever existed given the lack of evidence that Marie ever stayed with her mother in Poitiers.

Carroll L (1887) Alice on the stage. The Theatre. (Accessed from Lenny’s Alice in Wonderland site at on March 21, 2012)

Carroll L (1899) The Lewis Carroll Picture Book: A Selection From the Unpublished Writings and Drawings of Lewis Carroll [pseud.] Together With Reprints From Scarce and Unacknowledged Work. TF Unwin: London.

Carroll L (1992) Y Carpette Knyghte. In The Stuff Of Literature: Physical Aspects Of Texts and their Relation To Literary Meaning. Edward A. Levenston. SUNY Press: Albany, p. 44.

Cavendish R (2002) Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou. History Today. 52.5: 64.

Summary of Eleanor’s second marriage to Henry, Count of Poitou and Duke of Normandy, following the annulment of her marriage to Louis VII of France. Discusses primary characteristics of the two royal spouses, contrasting the energetic, ambitious Henry with the lethargic, scholarly Louis.

Chepmell HLM (1862) A Short Course of History. First Series. I. II. III, Greece. Rome. England. Whittaker: London.

Cohen MN (1996) Lewis Carroll: A Biography. Vintage Books: New York.

Collingwood SD (ed.). (1898). The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll (Rev. C.L. Dodgson). T. F. Unwin: London.

Dalby R (1991) The Golden Age Of Children’s Book Illustration. Gallery Books: New York.

Daniel S (1592/1969) Delia; with, The complaint of Rosamond. Scolar P: Menston.

Davies MJ (2010) Alice in Waterland. Signal Books: Oxford.

Extensive treatment of the role of the river in the Alice books.

de St-Ferriol J (2005-2008) The Counts of Toulouse, the Dukes of Aquitaine and the Kings of England. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from

Deloney T (c. 1543/1820) The Life and Death of Fair Rosamund, Concubine to King Henry II. Printed for the Booksellers: Stirling.

The ballad was printed and sold by the Widow Franklin, at the town school-house, 1746. The only known copy, held by the American Antiquarian Society, is imperfect; missing portions of title were conjectured by Alden from Hazlitt. Attributed to Thomas Deloney (c.1543 – 1600) in Potter AC, Ckeghorn HM, The Catalogue of English and American Chap-Books and Broadside Ballads in Harvard College Library, Harvard University Library, p. 47.

Dicks SE (1999) Women of the Twelfth Century. The Historian 62. 1: 185-6.

Examines the very different views of Eleanor.

Dodgson  Rev CL (1889) The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll (Rev CL Dodgson). SD Collingwood (ed). Century Co: New York.

Abundantly illustrated.

“To the Child Friends of Lewis Carroll and to all who Love his Writings This Book is Dedicated.”

Dougill, J (1998) Oxford In English Literature: The Making, and Undoing, of ‘the English Athens’. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor.

Though Alice is not an Oxford novel as such, the fantasy might paradoxically be considered the Oxford novel, full of donnish humour and playfulness, and Desmond Morris was not the first to observe that it is a “typical Oxford book — light and fantastic but with serious bits of thought embedded in it.” . . . For all its flights of fancy, Alice is firmly rooted in Oxford and in particular in the Christ Church environment of its author and the young girl who inspired him. (p. 127)

p. 128—130: Relates all kinds of Oxford/Christ Church detail that form the basis of Alice in Wonderland. Also talks of royal motif that runs the adventures, particularly Through the Looking Glass.

p. 129: Dodgson’s files of correspondence contained some ninety-eight thousand cross-references

The commonly accepted story [on the founding of Oxford} concerns an eighth-century Saxon princess named Frideswide. . . .  commemorated in a stained-glass window by Edward Burne-Jones (1859) in the Latin Chapel of Christ Church Cathedral. (p. 12)

For medieval Oxford citizens the legend had a powerful and mystical fascination. . . . The mythic element was heightened in some versions of the legend, for Frideswide escapes from Algar (or Ufgar) to found a convent on the site where Christ Church cathedral now stands, around which the town developed. . . .  The story has left its mark on later literature too, for in Alice in Wonderland there is a reference to the well at Binsey from which Fridewide drew the water to bathe her aggressor’s eyes.  . . . Carroll was drawn to use it in his story because Alice Liddell and her sisters, for whom he made up the story, were sometimes take to Binsey by their governess, who had relatives there.

Dugdale W, Dodsworth SR, Wright J, Stevens J (1693). Monasticon Anglicanum, Or, The History Of The Ancient Abbies, and Other Monasteries, Hospitals, Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, in England And Wales With Divers French, Irish, and Scotch. Series: Early English books, 1641-1700. Printed for Sam Keble: London.

Emery A (2006) Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300–1500: Southern England. Cambridge University: Cambridge.

Fisher J (1973) The Magic of Lewis Carroll. Thomas Nelson: London.

Gernsheim H (1969) Lewis Carroll Photographer. Revised edition. Dover Publications: New York.

Goldman J (1966) The Lion in Winter: A Comedy in Two Acts. Samuel French Inc: New York.

Dramatizes the struggle among the sons of Henry II to determine who will be his successor. The Lion in Winter film is based on this script.

Gordon C (1982) Beyond The Looking Glass. Hodder and Stoughton: Toronto.

Gutmann BP (1907) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Dodge: New York.

Hancher M (1985) The Tenniel Illustrations to the “Alice” Books. Ohio University Press: Athens.

Hargreaves CL (1932) Alice’s Recollections of Carrollian Days.  Cornhill Magazine, July 1932.

Comments by Alice Liddell Hargreaves’s son Caryl

Harvey A (Director) (1968) The Lion in Winter. AVCO Embassy.

Starring Peter O’Toole, Katharine Hepburn, Anthony Hopkins. 1183 AD: King Henry II’s three sons all want to inherit the throne, but he won’t commit to a choice. They and his wife variously plot to force him. Writers: James Goldman (screenplay).

Higden R (1314/1482).  Polychronicon (History of the World). Caxton W, Trevisa J (eds.). William Caxton: Westminster.

Hilliam D (2005) Eleanor of Aquitaine: the Richest Queen in Medieval Europe. The Rosen Publishing Group: New York.

Intended for Grades 6—8. Contains many pictures, maps, and glossaries.

History of the Colleges of Winchester, Eton, and Westminster; with the Charter-House, the Schools of St. Paulís, Merchant Taylors, Harrow, and Rugby, and the Free-School of Christ’s Hospital. London: Printed for and Published by Rudolph Ackermann, 1816. First edition.

Hopkins AB (1913) The influence of Wace on the Arthurian romances of Crestian de Troies. Ph.D. Dissertation for the University of Chicago, Collegiate Press: Menasha WI.

Hudson D (1976) Lewis Carroll: An Illustrated Biography. Constable: London.

Hudson GM (1922) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Hodder: London; Dodd: New York.

Jackson AE (1914/1915) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Henry Frowde (1914): New York; Frowde (1915): London.

Keller JE (1999) Three orders, three women. Peace Review 11.2 (June 1999): 251-257.

A brief study of three women who exemplified their respective role within tripartite medieval society: those who fight (and thus rule), those who pray, and those who work; Eleanor is exalted as the quintessential ruling woman, along with Heloise (clergy) and Joan of Arc (peasant). This work offers a feminist perspective, stressing that class, or rank, took precedence over gender; consequently, Eleanor is not labeled a feminist. Instead the focus is on shifting power relations between the sexes during the 12th century, emphasizing the rise of courtly love as the primary force driving the realignment in favor of women, especially women as powerful as Eleanor, who was its “undisputed patroness”.

Kelly A (1950) Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings. Harvard University Press: Cambridge.

Kelly R (1990) Lewis Carroll. Revised Edition. Herbert Sussman (ed) Twayne Publishers: Boston.

Kibler WW (ed) (1976) Eleanor of Aquitaine: Patron and Politician. University of Texas Press: Austin.

Essays initially presented at a University of Texas symposium on all aspects of Eleanor’s diverse and complex personality and career. Kibler places Eleanor “at the heart of an entire civilization,” referring both to her political role in the rise of the Plantagenet kingdom and the centrality of her court in the cultural renaissance of the 12th century. Includes introduction by editor, six essays, illustrations, and a general index.

Kirk ML (1904) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Stokes: New York.

Levenston EA (1992) The Stuff of Literature : Physical Aspects of Texts and their Relation to Literary Meaning. State University of New York Press: Albany.

Lovett C, Stephanie B (1990) Lewis Carroll’s Alice: An Annotated Checklist of the Lovett Collection. Meckler: Westport CT and London.

Low S, Pulling FS (eds) (1884) The Dictionary of English History. Cassell: London; New York.

Lucena LR de (c. 1496) Repetición de amores e arte de axedres con CL iuegos de partido (Discourse on Love and the Art of Chess with 150 Problems).

Markale J (1979) Eleanor of Aquitaine (trans. Jon E. Graham) Inner Traditions: Rochester VT.

Markale J (2000) Courtly Love: The Path of Sexual Initiation. Inner Traditions/Bear & Company: Rochester VT.

Martindale J (1999) Eleanor of Aquitaine: The Last Years. In King John: New Interpretations, ed. S.D. Church. Boydell Press: Woodbridge.

This study of Eleanor’s influence over her less-favored son, although political in approach, does discuss Eleanor’s extraordinary leadership characteristics and their importance in the absence of such abilities on the part of John.

McCulloch JR (1842) A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, and Historical: of the Various Countries, Places and Principal Natural Objects In The World. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans: London.

Meade M (1977) Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography. Hawthorn Books: New York.

Monmouth G (1136/1966) Historia Regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain). (LGM Thorpe, ed.). Penguin: Harmondsworth.

Newell P (1901) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Harper and Brothers: New York and London.

Ovenden G (ed) (1972) The Illustrators of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Academy Editions: London (Revised 1979).

Owen, DDR (1993) Eleanor of Aquitaine: Queen and Legend. Blackwell: Cambridge MA.

A source that focuses on “the woman” Eleanor rather than “the politician”. Also looks at contemporary perceptions of the highly romanticized monarch.

“Most of our English annalists seem to have followed Higden, the monk of Chester, whose account with some enlargements, is thus given by Stow: ‘Rosamond, the fayre daughter of Walter Lord Clifford, concubine to Henry II (poisoned by Queen Elianor, as some thought) dyed at Woodstocke [AD 1177], where king Henry had made for her a house of wonderfulle working; so that no man or woman might come to her, but he that was instructed by the king, or such as were right secret with him touching the matter. This house after some was named Labyrinthus, or Dedalus worke, which was wrought like unto a knot in a garden, called a Maze; but it was commonly aid that lastly the queene came to her by a clue of thridde, or silke, and so dealt with her, that she lived not long after; but when she was dead she was buried at Godstow, in a house of nunnes beside Oxford . . . How the queen gained admittance into Rosamond’s bower is differently related.’ (p. 120)

Paterson D (1826). Paterson’s Roads: Being an Entirely Original and Accurate Description Of All The Direct And Principal Cross Roads in England and Wales, with Part of The Roads Of Scotland. Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green: London.

Pernoud R (1967) Eleanor of Aquitaine. Wiles P (trans). Coward-McCann: New York.

Pernoud’s work, like Amy Kelly’s, has been eclipsed by recent scholarship.

Pearn VA (1965) A Play in One Scene from Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.  S French: London.

Pliny (1856) The Natural History of Pliny. (Bostock J, Riley HT, trans.) Bohn’s classical library.  HG Bohn: London.

Plutarch (2010) Plutarch: Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans. (A. H. Clough, Ed.). Benediction Classics.

Porden (Franklin) EA (1822) Coeur De Lion; or, The Third Crusade. A Poem, in Sixteen Books. Printed for G. and W.B. Whittaker: London.

Raikes AWF (1932) Letter to The Times, 15 January 1932, p. 4.

[Alice Wilson Fox née Raikes] “An incident on 17 August 1868 confirmed Dodgson’s idea of Alice making a journey into Looking-Glass House, the title he was using at this time for the new Alice book. The idea came from a chance meeting with a distant cousin, Alice Raikes, on a visit to Dodgson’s Uncle Skeffington Lutwidge at Onslow Square, London. She lived next door, and Dodgson invited her to “see something rather puzzling”; the effect of holding an orange in the right-hand as viewed in a tall mirror. In her solution to the puzzle, Alice Raikes suggested that if she was on the other side of the mirror, the orange would remain in her right-hand, and not be in the left-hand as shown by her reflection. Dodgson was impressed with her answer. Alice Raikes said, many years later, that this incident gave Dodgson the idea for Looking-Glass.34 The chess-game feature of the book was probably present long before this. Dodgson played chess with Alice Liddell and her sisters many years earlier, and he, no doubt, invented chess-stories to amuse them, which were later included in the book. The chess framework of the story is unconventional, but the moves of the chess pieces are legitimate even though the White side appears to get a number of consecutive moves.“


Reston Jr, J  (2001) Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade. Doubleday:  New York.

Example of the contemporary turn to Eleanor’s central role in Richard’s personal development, his rise to power, and the maintenance of his Continental domains while he occupied most of his life slaughtering Muslim “infidels”.

Ruskin J (1888) Praeterita: Outlines of Scenes and Thoughts Perhaps Worthy of Memory in My Past Life —vol. III. George Allen: Oppington and London.

p. 77. <see>

It had chanced either the day before, or the day before that, that the Planet Saturn had treated me with his usual adversity in the carrying out of a plot with Alice in Wonderland. For, that evening, the Dean and Mrs. Liddell dined by command at Blenheim: but the girls were not commanded; and as I had been complaining of never getting a sight of them lately, after knowing them from the nursery, Alice said that she thought, perhaps, if I would come round after papa and mamma were safe off to Blenheim, Edith and she might give me a cup of tea and a little singing, and Rhoda show me how she was getting on with her drawing and geometry, or the like. And so it was arranged. The night was wild with snow, and no one like to come round to the Deanery after dark. . . . when there was a sudden sense of some stars having been blown out by the wind, round the corner; and then a crushing of the snow outside the house, and a drifting of it inside; and the children all scampered out to see what was wrong, and I followed slowly; — and there were the Dean and Mrs. Liddell standing just in the middle of the hall, and the footmen in consternation, and a silence, . . .

Ruskin J (2010/1903) The Works of John Ruskin. Allen Cook & Wedderburn (reissued by Cambridge University Press: Cambridge).

John Ruskin (1819–1900) changed Victorian perceptions of art and was the main influence behind “Gothic revival” architecture. As a social critic, he argued for the improvement of the condition of the poor, and against the increasing mechanization of work in factories, which he believed was dull and soul-destroying. The thirty-nine volumes of his work, originally published between 1903 and 1912, includes his books and essays. Almost all of his writings are highly illustrated. Some editions also include extracts from letters, articles and reminiscences both by and about Ruskin.

Sarzano F (1948) Sir John Tenniel. Pellegrini & Cudahy: New York.

Shakespeare W (c. 1600) The Life and Death of King John. First Folio (William and Philip Herbert Eds.).

Shakespeare’s demonization of “Queen Elinor” is the subject of frequent criticism by serious scholars of Eleanor. It does offer a sense of how she was viewed in Elizabethan England

Sharpe J (1904) William of Malmesbury’s Chronicle of the kings of England: from the earliest period to the reign of King Stephen. George Bell and Sons, The University of Wisconsin: Madison.

p. 443, Henry’s menagerie; illustrated by John Allen Giles

Simpson R (1994) Sir John Tenniel. Associated University Presses: Cranbury.

Soper G (1911) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Headley: London; Baker: New York.

Sowerby M (illus) (1907) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Chatto and Windus: London.

Stones A (nd) The Lancelot Project: The Lancelot-Grail Story: Summary of the Branches. Highlights of the Story. Project Website. Retrieved March 16, 2012, from

Tarrant MW (1916) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Ward, Lock and Co Ltd: London.

Thacker FS (1909). The Stripling Thames: A Book of the River Above. F.S. Thacker: Oxford; London.

Troyes, Chrétien de (1173) Yvain. The Knight of the Lion.

Epic poem of an Arthurian knight.

Walker WH (1907) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. John Lane: London.

Weir A (2000) Eleanor of Aquitaine: a Life. Ballantine: New York.

A somewhat recent and comprehensive biography on Eleanor: Includes comparative research of contemporary sources, a context of her time, reevaluations of existing controversies and some new approaches.

Wigram S (1895) The Cartulary of the Monastery of St. Frideswide at Oxford. Printed for the Oxford historical Society at the Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Wikipedia (nd) Assize of Clarendon. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from

Willingham EM (ed) (2007). La mort le Roi Artu (Mort Artu). Brepols Publishers.

The multi-volume project responds to long-standing lacunae in Old French text study and Arthurian scholarship, in that it aims to provide a linguistically and scribally authentic text of a single illustrated Arthurian manuscript; in this case, it is one that has never before been edited, collated, or translated. This 13th-century Text from Yale 229 includes critical essays, notes and glossary. .

Wilson AN (2004) The Victorians. W.W. Norton & Company: New York.

John Ruskin in Praeterita recalls sneaking an evening with Alice and her sisters when Dean and Mrs. Liddell were supposed to be dining at Blenheim Palace with the Duke of Marlborough. (p. 325)

Women in World History Curriculum. (nd). “Biographies: Eleanor of Aquitaine.” Women in World History: Biographies. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from

Woodward AB (1913) Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, G. Bell: London.

Yalom M (2004) Birth of the Chess Queen: A History, Harper Collins: New York.

Eleanor’s history was interwoven at many levels with the spread of chess in France and England, and with the expansion of the chess queen’s empire. During Eleanor’s lifetime, the queen continued to replace the vizier throughout Europe, so that by the end of her reign there was hardly a sign of the vizier on the European board, except for Spain, where Arabic Chessmen Coexisted with European pieces into the late Middle Ages. It is tempting to assume that Eleanor’s prestige played some role in the popularity of her miniature counterpart. At the least, she epitomized the trappings of queenship that worked their way into the symbolic system on the chessboard. (p. 87)

By the time of Eleanor’s reign in England, the chess queen had clearly entered the literary imagination as a metaphor for wifely behavior at the highest level. For better and worse, these double-edged visions of queen’s behavior reflect medieval attitudes toward women in general (p. 93).

In Eleanor’s lifetime, the names of the chessmen varied not only from one language to the next, but also within Latin (p. 96)

Eleanor of Aquitaine and Blanche of Castile became in their long lifetimes the equals of their husbands and sons, the living models of female strength and grandeur symbolically incarnated in the chess queen (p. 99)